The Northwestern Project
The Northwestern Project is currently the program’s primary focus. Begun in 1995, the Northwestern Juvenile Project is the first large-scale longitudinal study of mental health needs and outcomes of delinquent youth. More than 1800 participants were enrolled in the study between 1995 and 1998; interviewers continue to collect data from over 90% of the original sample. Baseline interviews were conducted while the participants were detained as juveniles. Of note, participants are reinterviewed wherever they live when their interview is due, whether in the community or incarcerated. Previously known as the Northwestern Juvenile Project, the current name reflects the age of the participants who are now all adults. As of August 2011, 1644 are still enrolled in the project: 108 have died and 79 have withdrawn. For our most recent completed follow-up wave, 9.6% were lost to follow-up but continue to be tracked for subsequent interviews.
GOALS OF THE STUDY
- To assess the development and persistence of alcohol, drug, and mental disorders as delinquent youth age. We also study patterns of comorbidity, associated functional impairments, and related outcomes.
- To investigate barriers, pathways, and patterns of service use. We are assessing if and when persons who need services receive them (whether they are in the community or incarcerated) and from which sectors: corrections, welfare, education, general health, mental health, and informal services. We also evaluate how services affect outcomes.
- To determine pathways and patterns of drug use, violence, and other behaviours such as HIV/AIDS risk. We examine the development of these risky behaviors among our subjects, focusing on gender differences, racial/ethnic differences, the antecedents of these risky behaviors, how these behaviors are interrelated, and how incarceration affects risky behaviors.
HOW IS THE NORTHWESTERN PROJECT UNIQUE?
Many studies have investigated general population youth to see who becomes delinquent. Far fewer studies examine health needs and outcomes among youth already in the juvenile justice system. We study delinquent youth because they are at such a high risk for psychiatric disorders, life-threatening problem behaviours, HIV/AIDS, and premature violent death. Our data will help plan needed intervention strategies for delinquent youth and incarcerated adults.
HOW CAN THE RESULTS OF THE LONGITUDINAL STUDY GUIDE PUBLIC POLICY AND IMPROVE SERVICES FOR DELINQUENT YOUTH?
The Northwestern Project will help direct the types of prevention programs that best fit the needs of delinquent youth. Moreover, longitudinal data allow us to examine fundamental questions not possible in cross-sectional studies. For example: What are the most common patterns of comorbid disorders? Which variables predict the sequence of disorders as youth age? How do HIV/AIDS risk behaviors (e.g., unprotected sex, trading sex for drugs, needle-risk behaviors) develop over time? How do patterns of incarceration affect drug abuse and HIV/AIDS risk behaviors in adulthood?
MAJOR PUBLICATIONS FROM THE NORTHWESTERN PROJECT:
Childhood Maltreatment and Psychiatric Disorders in Detained Youth. Devon C. King, Karen M. Abram, Erin G. Romero, Jason J. Washburn, Leah J. Welty, Linda A. Teplin (2011). Psychiatric Services 12: 1430-8. PMID: 22193789. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/22193789
Functional Impairment in Youth Three Years after Detention. Karen M. Abram, Jeanne Y. Choe, Jason J. Washburn, Erin G. Romero, Linda A. Teplin (2009). Journal of Adolescent Health 44:528-535. PMID: 19465316, PMCID: PMC2759315 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/19465316
Psychiatric Disorders among Detained Youths: A Comparison of Youths Processed in Juvenile Court and Adult Criminal Court. Jason J. Washburn, Linda A. Teplin, Laurie S.Voss, Clarissa D. Simon, Karen M. Abram, Gary M. McClelland (2008). Psychiatric Services 59:965-973. NIHMS109770
HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth with Psychiatric Disorders: A Longitudinal Study. Katherine S. Elkington, Linda A. Teplin, Amy A. Mericle, Leah J. Welty, Erin G. Romero, Karen M. Abram (2008). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 47:901-911. PMID: 18645421. PMCID: PMC2754224 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18645421
Perceived Barriers to Mental Health Services among Youths in Detention. Karen M. Abram, Leah J. Paskar, Jason J. Washburn, Linda A. Teplin (2008). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 47:301-308. PMID:18216738 PMCID: PMC2945389 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/18216738
Suicidal Ideation and Behaviors among Youths in Juvenile Detention. Karen M. Abram, Jeanne Y. Choe, Jason J. Washburn, Linda A. Teplin, Devon C. King, Mina K. Dulcan (2008). Journal of the American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry 47:291-300. PMID:18216737. PMCID: PMC2945393. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/18216737
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Psychiatric Comorbidity among Detained Youth. Karen M. Abram, Jason J. Washburn, Linda A. Teplin, Kristin K. Emanuel, Erin G. Romero, Gary M. McClelland (2007). Psychiatric Services 58:1311-1316. PMID: 17914008. PMCID: PMC2818309 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17914008
Development of Antisocial Personality Disorder in Detained Youth: The Predictive Value of Mental Disorders. Jason J. Washburn, Erin G. Romero, Leah J. Welty, Karen M. Abram, Linda A. Teplin, Gary M. McClelland, Leah D. Paskar, (2007). Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology 75:221-231 PMID:17469880 PMCID:PMC2804474 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17469880
A Longitudinal Study of the Prevalence, Development and Persistence of HIV/Sexually Transmitted Infection Risk Behaviors in Delinquent Youth: Implications for Health Care in the Community. Erin G. Romero, Linda A. Teplin, Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, Leah J. Welty, Jason J. Washburn (2007). Pediatrics 119:e1126-e1141. PMID:17473083 PMCID: PMC2813809 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17473083
Concordance Between Self-Reported Maltreatment and Court Records of Abuse or Neglect Among High-Risk Youths. Monica H. Swahn, Daniel J. Whitaker, Courtney B. Pippen, Rebecca T. Leeb, Linda A. Teplin, Karen M. Abram, Gary M. McClelland (2006).American Journal of Public Health 96:1849-1853. PMID:17008582 PMCID: PMC1586157 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/17008582
Detecting Mental Disorder in Juvenile Detainees: Who Receives Services. Linda A. Teplin, Karen M. Abram, Gary M. McClelland, Jason J. Washburn, Ann K. Pikus (2005).American Journal of Public Health 95:1773-1780. PMID: 16186454. PMCID: PMC1449435 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16186454
Major Mental Disorders, Substance Use Disorders, Comorbidity, and HIV/AIDS Risk Behaviors in Juvenile Detainees. Linda A. Teplin, Katherine S. Elkington, Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, Amy A. Mericle, Jason J. Washburn (2005). Psychiatric Services 56:823-828. PMID: 16020814 PMCID: PMC1557408 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/16020814
Early Violent Death Among Delinquent Youth: A Prospective Longitudinal Study. Linda A. Teplin, Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram, Darinka Mileusnic (2005). Pediatrics115:1586-1593. PMID: 15930220 PMC1351295 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15930220
Multiple Substance Use Disorders in Juvenile Detainees. Gary M. McClelland, Katherine S. Elkington, Linda A. Teplin, Karen M. Abram (2004). Journal of the American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry 43:1215-1224. PMID:15381888 PMCID: PMC2791706 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15381888
Posttraumatic Stress Disorder and Trauma in Youth in Juvenile Detention. Karen M. Abram, Linda A. Teplin, Devon R. Charles, Sandra Longworth, Gary McClelland, Mina K. Dulcan (2004), Archives of General Psychiatry 61:403-410. PMID: 15066899 PMCID: PMC2861915 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/15066899
Comorbid Psychiatric Disorders in Youth in Juvenile Detention. Karen M. Abram, Linda A. Teplin, Gary M. McClelland, Mina K. Dulcan (2003). Archives of General Psychiatry 60:1097-1108. PMID: 14609885, PMCID: PMC2893728 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/14609885
HIV and AIDS Risk Behaviors in Juvenile Detainees: Implications for Public Health Policy. Linda A. Teplin, Amy A. Mericle, Gary M. McClelland, Karen M. Abram (2003).American Journal of Public Health 93:906-912. PMID: 12773351,PMCID: PMC1447866 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12773351
Psychiatric Disorders in Youth in Juvenile Detention. Linda A. Teplin, Karen M. Abram, Gary M. McClelland, Mina K. Dulcan, Amy A. Mericle (2002). Archives of General Psychiatry 59:1133-1143. PMID: 12470130 PMCID: PMC2861992 http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/12470130